SGL: B Ruml
-- the beliefs and practices described in the Hebrew Bible
YHWH = El + Ba'al (+ familial "god of x")
consort: Asherah - tree of life (hypostasis of fertility?)
centers in Dan and Bethel: YHWH worshipped as a calf
but aniconic tendencies; later confirmed
worship consisted of animal sacrifices
role of prophets: medium for inquiring of God (later suppressed)
child sacrifice ?
a royal theology (Davidic covenant; messianic expectations)
the afterlife in Sheol: a shadowy, listless realm
but compare: stories of necromancy (e.g., Saul)
the divine assembly toned down in HB
Differences between earlier and later religion:
a compromise between Deuteronomic-convenantal religion and Priestly-cultic religion
monolatrous (via covenant) => monotheistic
the "name of God" rests in the Temple
divine transcendence: no God-earth interactions
love of God as total commitment (implicit free will)
militant against pseudo-foe "Canaanites"
textual -- no (competing) prophecies
sacrifical cult as "eternal (unconditional) covenant"
the "glory of God" rests in the Temple (divine immanence)
touching, smelling: a physical religion
central ritual substance: blood; central idea: atonement
cf. Rabbinic Judaism: prayer => atonement
holiness = separation, exclusion
unconditional trust in God (and in the prophets who delivered his word)
and, derivatively, in the authenticity of the textual record of his revelation.
religion as belief
the divine realm as transcendent
evil as an independent force
the afterlife as just deserts
salvation as redemption from sinful embodiment
Isaiah of Jerusalem (late 700s)
reflected in chapters 1-39
anonymous Second Isaiah (post-exilic)
reflected in chapters 40-66
from the Greek Christós
transliterated in Latin as Christus
translates the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ (Māšîaḥ)
which means the annointed one
What's the connotation: who was annointed?
What was the messianic expectation?
Was the messiah expected to suffer and die?
exact phrase does not appear in the Hebrew Bible
but: "Yours is the kingdom, O Lord" and "The Lord is King"
from the prophets and Jewish apocalypticism
in heaven or on earth?
Daniel 7:13-14: As I looked on, in the night vision, One like a human being Came with the clouds of heaven; He reached the Ancient of Days And was presented to Him. Dominion, glory, and kingship were given to him; All peoples and nations of every language must serve him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that shall not pass away, And his kingship, one that shall not be destroyed.
Letters of Paul (7 of 13): 50-58 CE
Sayings Gospel of Q: 40-75 CE
Mark: 70 CE
Matthew: 80-85 CE
Luke (and Acts): 85-90 CE
John: 95-100 CE
Deutero-Pauline Letters (6 of 13): 85-100 CE
Revelation: 110 CE ??
What is it?
Arguments in favor of Q
Arguments against Q
What's the story line?
What's the "messianic secret?"
Ends at 16:8: "and they said nothing to anyone, for they were afraid."
"a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins"
baptizes Jesus: what's wrong with this?
“You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.”
"tempted by Satan"
"the kingdom of God has come near; repent . . ."
unclean spirit; fever
healed; cast out demons
a self-appointed "movement" to interpret the Law
minority but widespread (Paul in Tarsus)
how to observe the Sabbath (meaning of "work")
wahing of hands before eating
the scribes: "He has Beelzebul, and by the ruler of the demons he casts out demons."
proponents: a miracle
opponents: magic through demonic forces
the insiders understand; the outsiders are doomed
"when they hear, Satan immediately comes and takes away the word that is sown in them."
The unclean spirits enter into a herd of swine.
The family of Jesus: four brothers and plural sisters.
Herod believes that John the Baptist has been resurrected.
Pharisees but not Saducees
"(For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, do not eat unless they thoroughly wash their hands, thus observing the tradition of the elders, . . . )"
v. 8: "You abandon the commandment of God and hold to human tradition."
oral law compiled in the Mishnah, c. 200 CE
"(Thus he declared all foods clean.)"
"Why does this generation ask for a sign? Truly, I tell you, no sign will be given to this generation."
Cf. John 20:30-31: "Now Jesus did many other signs . . . which are not written in this book. But these are written so that you may come to believe that Jesus is the Messiah . . .."
"Then he began to teach them that the Son of Man must undergo great suffering, . . . be killed, and after three days rise again. . . . And Peter took him aside and began to rebuke him."
No Jew expected a suffering messiah.
Cf. v. 38: ". . . the Son of Man . . . when he comes in the glory of his Father with the holy angels."
A substitute for a resurrection appearance?
Elijah: one of two HB figures to be taken up to heaven.
Elijah: "there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven" (2 Kings 2:11)
The other was Enoch: "walked with God: and he was no more; for God took him" (Genesis 5:21-24)
"[James and John] said to him, “Grant us to sit, one at your right hand and one at your left, in your glory. . . . [Jesus replied] to sit at my right hand or at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared."
Matthew 9:27-28: "Then Peter said in reply, “Look, we have left everything and followed you. What then will we have?” Jesus said to them, “Truly I tell you, at the renewal of all things, when the Son of Man is seated on the throne of his glory, you who have followed me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel."