SGL: B Ruml
1. Cosmic monism's inability to handle the problem of evil has resulted in the new idea of a second antagonistic force: Satan.
2. The introduction of personal piety has focussed attention on the inaccuracy of the prophets' claim that the righteous are rewarded and the wicked punished in this life.
As a result: the new idea of the delivery of divine justice after death.
These two new ideas, added to the certainty that YHWH was the superior cosmic force, led naturally to the idea of a final battle in which YHWH vanquishes the forces of evil forever and provides the final judgment of just deserts.
1) Jewish apocalypticism: Daniel, Qumran, Enoch (Watchers)
2) Gnosticism: Christian and non-Christian varieties
What's the fundamental difference?
Historical pessimism (helplessness);
Ultimate vindication (requires resurrection);
Imminence of the end times;
13 letters of Paul; 7 by Paul: ~50-62CE
Luke / Acts: ~80CE
Mark written first around 70CE;
Matthew and Luke relying on Mark and "Q";
"Q": what Matthew and Luke have in common but not in Mark;
"M" and "L": what Matthew or Luke have uniquely;
Earlier is better;
The earliest sources so describe him;
The later sources retreat (Luke, John);
The latest sources (Thomas) deny a future Kingdom;
Salvation depends on good deeds;
Not on belief in Jesus (as Paul);
What was John's message?
What was Paul's message?
What would connect them?
Mark 1:15: the Kingdom of God is almost here: repent!
KofG to be here on earth (Son of Man comes down);
Descriptions of the coming judgment: the furnace of fire;
his future suffering;
cosmic judge from heaven;
Jesus refers to a cosmic judge who is not himself;
Source is Daniel 7;
references also in 1 Enoch;
and 4 Ezra (flamethrower mouth!)
Evil forces are now in control;
Prosperous therefore on the side of evil;
When evil is defeated, the prosperous will be poor;
Last will be first;
First will be last;
sinner = no attempt to follow Torah;
Will enter the KofG before righteous!!
Matthew: the poor in spirit;
Luke: the poor;
Deuteronomy permits sacrifice only there;
World-wide temple tax;
Hierarchy of spaces;
"not one stone left on another";
Must have been written before 70CE!
Jeremiah 7: how different?
Within this generation;
Sudden and unexpected;
Enrman: "Jesus' apocalyptic context;
What are differences?
There will be no long term!
Ethics are for preparation for KofG
What happens prior to Passion?
Is it clearly apocalyptic?
Are demons real? (you can hear what they say!)
No nativity scene;
What history prior to canonical Mark?
"jury is out";
Example of scholarly forgery: apt?
What questions remain?