SGL: B Ruml
That's what the community does.
What reasons does the community give for doing so?
What reasons appear plausible?
Propitiation: to comfort or please.
Animal sacrifices (cf. human sacrifices)
Atonement: reparation for a wrong or injury.
Retribution: punishment for a wrongful act.
Repentence: corporate, then individual.
Genesis 18:19: ". . . to keep the way of the Lord . . . in order that the Lord may bring about . . . what he has promised"
Genesis 18:25: the innocent and the guilty should not fare alike;
Is this in fact the result?
Exodus 34: "visits the iniquity of parents upon . . . 3rd, 4th generation"
Exodus 20: what's the difference from Exodus 34?
Is that clear or is it an interpretation?
"if you obey . . ., then YHWH will"
if not: "unitl you are wiped out"
clearly the unit of justice is the nation
"these are the terms of the covenant"
each individual stands on his own;
idea of personal repentence [cf. animal sacrifices]
Apocalypse: a literary form ("revealing")
Apocalypticism: a generalization of the themes found in apocalypses;
"related to the end times"
Prophets predicted the fall of the Northern Kingdom (Amos), the fall of Babylon (Isaiah), but in cosmic terms.
Three phases of development of eschatological imagery: we cover post-exilic and hellenistic.
Envisioning the restoration of the Israelite nation;
resurrection as metaphor (e.g., Ezekiel)
A glorious time is coming: a new beginning where YHWH (as steward of Israel) triumphs over the nations.
This was the initial end time: when Israel would be independent.
Only much later: a resolution of the conflict bwtween good and evil.
3rd Isaiah (65) "to create a new heaven and a new earth"
Collins: eschatological expectations were generated by: 1) profound alienation and a sense of hopelessness; and 2) divisions within the Jewish community (minority needed consolation).
Few surviving sources from Persian period.
Enoch: Book of the Watchers (ch 1-36)
Pseudonimity: allowed extended prophecy, implied authority;
Implication that history is determined is new (and odd).
Evil from the giants of Exodus 6 from whom come supernatural demonic forces;
They also teach men "forbidden knowledge";
Earliest description of judgment of the dead;
Takeaway: in (unseen) heaven, provision has been made for the triumph of justice; just deserts will be delivered on an individual basis.
"One like a [son of man] human being came with the clouds of heaven"
Collins: a reference to Michael, the archangel who is the "prince of Israel";
Dominion forever over all is thus given to Israel.
Explicit reference to resurrection and the delivery of just deserts.