SGL: B Ruml
What's the takeaway?
"in their present form, date from 500 to 100 BCE"
(no further intentional changes)
D during Josiah's reign (610s)
Deuteronomic history: Judges, Samuel, Kings, Joshua
Maccabeans (Daniel, etc.)
Pharasees (as rabbis): final canonization ~100 CE
"The partial preservation of the evidence may be explained by the partiality of those who preserved it."
The Hebrew Bible contains views from many periods
They often conflict (older views left in place)
Little concern for consistency
We can trace the evolution of ideas!
What was distinctive about monolatry: the prohibition.
pagan worship was cumulative;
2nd Isaiah (ch 40-56)
The consequence of religion as behavior and not belief is that it's hard to discern changes in belief on the ground.
canonization of Torah (by 250; Septuagint)
scribes: learned in the sacred traditions;
conversion; ban on intermarriage;
study of scripture;
reward the righteous (law abiding); punish the wicked;
pre-exile: consequences were collective; Israel or family; occured during lifetime;
post-exile: consequences were individual; unclear when they would occur;
change follows from notion of personal piety;
"Second temple Judaism therefore elaborated complex schemes of reward and punishment after death or at the end time."
outgrowth of sin, repent, redemption cycle;
as YHWH becomes more transcendent and prophets fade, intermediaries are needed;
What was Kaufmann's distinction between polytheism and (Jewish) monotheism?
Does Kaufmann's monotheism make dualism more appealing?
Is human-caused evil enough?